List of U.S. National Monuments

compiled by Wm. Robert Johnston
last updated 18 September 2016

monumentstatedate first
date of national monument statustotal area (km2)privately-owned area (km2)managing agency
(if not NPS)
Admiralty Island NMAK1978PP-JC19803,961.39090.0000USFS
African Burial Ground NMNY1992PP-GB20060.00140.0000 
Agate Fossil Beds NMNE1965CON196512.37481.1868 
Agua Fria NMAZ2000PP-WC2000292.76585.8437BLM
Alibates Flint Quarries NMTX1965CON19655.54811.1806 
Aniakchak NMAK1978PP-JC1978555.13160.0000 
Aztec Ruins NMNM1923PP-WH19231.28850.1815 
Bandelier NMNM1916PP-WW1916136.28463.4205 
Basin and Range NMNV2015PP-BO20152,850 BLM
Belmont-Paul Women's Equality NMDC2016PP-BO20160.0014  
Berryessa Snow Mountain NMCA2015PP-BO20151,338.6 USFS
Booker T. Washington NMVA1956CON19560.96720.0000 
Browns Canyon NMCO2015PP-BO201587.355 BLM/USFS
Buck Island Reef NMVI1961PP-JK196176.95290.0000 
Cabrillo NMCA1913PP-WW19130.64730.0000 
California Coastal NMCA2000PP-WC20009.17420.0000BLM
Canyon de Chelly NMAZ1931PP-HH1931339.2884339.2884 
Canyons of the Ancients NMCO2000PP-WC2000741.096849.2260BLM
Cape Krusenstern NMAK1978PP-JC19782,626.742588.5222 
Capulin Volcano NMNM1916PP-WW19163.20850.0000 
Carrizo Plain NMCA2001PP-WC2001998.8127122.4822BLM
Casa Grande Ruins NMAZ1889PP-WW19181.91210.0000 
Cascade-Siskiyou NMOR2000PP-WC2000356.5078129.9729BLM
Castillo de San Marcos NMFL1924PP-CC19240.07840.0000 
Castle Clinton NMNY1946CON19460.00400.0000 
Castle Mountain NMCA2016PP-BO201684.66  
Cedar Breaks NMUT1933PP-FR193324.90680.0000 
Cesar E. Chavez NMCA2012PP-BO20120.0425 NPS/NCC
Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers NMOH2013PP-BO20130.2414  
Chimney Rock NMCO1970PP-BO201219.12540.0000USFS
Chiricahua NMAZ1924PP-CC192448.50050.0095 
Colorado NMCO1911PP-WT191183.09790.0000 
Craters Of The Moon NMID1924PP-CC20023,044.555327.7250NPS/BLM
Devils Postpile NMCA1911PP-WT19113.23130.0000 
Devils Tower NMWY1906PP-TR19065.45080.0000 
Dinosaur NMCO-UT1915PP-WW1915850.986418.4003 
Effigy Mounds NMIA1949PP-HT194910.22390.0000 
El Malpais NMNM1987CON1987462.462415.8953 
El Morro NMNM1906PP-TR19065.17480.9664 
Florissant Fossil Beds NMCO1969CON196924.27340.0000 
Fort Frederica NMGA1936CON19361.15130.0052 
Fort Matanzas NMFL1924PP-CC19241.21450.0065 
Fort McHenry NMHSMD1925CON19391.31600.0000 
Fort Monroe NMVA2011PP-BO20110.17510.0000 
(Fort Moultrie)* NMSC1960 20070.0214  
Fort Ord NMCA2012PP-BO201259.2905 BLM
Fort Pulaski NMGA1924PP-CC192422.75590.0000 
Fort Stanwix NMNY1935CON19350.06280.0000 
Fort Sumter NMSC1948CON19480.95000.0000 
Fort Union NMNM1954CON19542.91620.0000 
Fossil Butte NMWY1972CON197233.17610.0000 
George Washington Birthplace NMVA1930CON19302.67790.4512 
George Washington Carver NMMO1943CON19430.84980.0000 
Giant Sequoia NMCA2000PP-WC20001,326.43410.0000USFS
Gila Cliff Dwellings NMNM1907PP-TR19072.15750.0000 
Governors Island NMNY2001PP-WC20010.09220.0020 
Grand Canyon-Parashant NMAZ2000PP-WC20004,242.420832.0511BLM
Grand Portage NMMN1951CON19582.87310.0000 
Grand Staircase-Escalante NMUT1996PP-WC19967,608.539356.5629BLM
Hagerman Fossil Beds NMID1988CON198817.60850.0668 
Hanford Reach NMWA2000PP-WC2000789.13700.0000DOE/FWS
Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad NMMD2013PP-BO201347.5500 NPS/FWS
Hohokam Pima NMAZ1972CON19726.83926.8392 
Homestead NMNE1936CON19360.85430.0000 
Honouliuli NMHI2015PP-BO20150.498  
Hovenweep NMCO-UT1923PP-WH19233.17650.0000 
Ironwood Forest NMAZ2000PP-WC2000763.314020.9668BLM
Jewel Cave NMSD1908PP-TR19085.15370.0000 
John Day Fossil Beds NMOR1974CON197456.90181.9074 
Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks NMNM2001PP-WC200121.86113.0635BLM
Katahdin Woods and Waters NMME2016PP-BO2016354.35  
Lava Beds NMCA1925PP-CC1925188.95750.0000 
Little Bighorn Battlefield NMMT1940CON19913.09720.0000 
Marianas Trench MNMPac2009PP-GB20090.00000.0000FWS
Misty Fjords NMAK1978PP-JC19809,281.17390.0000USFS
Mojave Trails NMCA2016PP-BO20166,500 BLM
Montezuma Castle NMAZ1906PP-TR19063.47730.0681 
Mount Saint Helens NVMWA1982CON1982455.6477 USFS
Muir Woods NMCA1908PP-TR19082.24010.0000 
Natural Bridges NMUT1908PP-TR190830.90380.0000 
Navajo NMAZ1909PP-WT19091.45690.0000 
Newberry NVMOR1990CON1990221.8568 USFS
Northeast Canyons and Seamounts MNMMA2016PP-BO20160.00000.0000FWS
Ocmulgee NMGA1934CON19342.83900.0000 
Oregon Caves NMOR1909PP-WT19091.97480.0160 
Organ Mountains-Desert Peaks NMNM2014PP-BO20142,018.633 BLM
Organ Pipe Cactus NMAZ1937PP-FR19371,338.25030.1763 
Pacific Remote Islands MNMPac2009PP-GB200931.30000.0000FWS
Papahanaumokuakea MNMHI1909PP-TR200613.00000.0000NPS/NOAA
Petroglyph NMNM1990CON199030.48305.9884 
Pipe Spring NMAZ1923PP-WH19230.16190.0000 
Pipestone NMMN1937CON19371.14030.0000 
Pompeys Pillar NMMT2001PP-WC20010.20640.0000BLM
Poverty Point NMLA1988CON19883.68612.0061 
Prehistoric Trackways NMNM2009CON200921.26620.0000BLM
President Lincoln and Soldiers' HomeNMDC1973PP-WC20000.00930.0093AFRH/NTHP
Pullman NMIL2015PP-BO20150.0010 ?
Rainbow Bridge NMUT1910PP-WT19100.64750.0000 
Rio Grande Del Norte NMNM2013PP-BO2013981.5853 BLM
Rose Atoll MNMAS2009PP-GB20090.08000.0000FWS
Russell Cave NMAL1961PP-JK19611.25630.0000 
Salinas Pueblo Missions NMNM1909PP-WT19094.33590.3262 
San Gabriel Mountains NMCA2014PP-BO20141,400.929 BLM
San Juan Islands NMWA2013PP-BO20133.9255 BLM
Sand to Snow NMCA2016PP-BO2016623 USFS
Santa Rosa and San Jacinto MountainsNMCA2000CON20001,133.4071230.8893BLM/USFS
Scotts Bluff NMNE1919PP-WW191912.16000.1917 
Sonoran Desert NMAZ2001PP-WC20012,008.859523.8765BLM
Statue of Liberty NMNY-NJ1924PP-CC19240.24630.0100 
Stonewall NMNY2016PP-BO20160.0005  
Sunset Crater Volcano NMAZ1930PP-HH193312.30240.0000 
Timpanogos Cave NMUT1922PP-WH19331.01170.0000 
Tonto NMAZ1907PP-TR19074.53250.0000 
Tule Springs Fossil Beds NMNV2014CON201491.46  
Tuzigoot NMAZ1939PP-FR19393.28561.7416 
Upper Missouri River Breaks NMMT2001PP-WC20012,005.0191330.6889BLM
Vermillion Cliffs NMAZ2000PP-WC20001,188.51722.7640BLM
Virgin Islands Coral Reef NMVI2001PP-WC200151.42790.0000 
Waco Mammoth NMTX2015PP-BO20150.0288  
Walnut Canyon NMAZ1915PP-WW191514.28241.1244 
White Sands NMNM1933PP-HH1933581.66780.0000 
World War II Valor in the Pacific NMHI-CA1962PP-GB20080.23890.0000 
Wupatki NMAZ1924PP-CC1924143.34830.0000 
Yucca House NMCO1919PP-WW19190.13710.0000 

Note: Monuments are denoted as either national monuments (NM), marine national monuments (MNM), national volcanic monuments (NVM), or national monument and historic shrine (NMHS). Managing agencies include:

Of the current 120 national monuments, 81 are wholly managed by the NPS, 5 are jointly managed by the NPS and another agency, 21 are wholly managed by the Bureau of Land Management, and 16 are managed by other agencies/combinations.

Original authority refers to the act creating the park, either act of Congress or Presidential proclaimation under the Antiquities Act. The table below identifies the codes used for original authority and gives counts of the following:

designating authoritycodecounts
current NM,
current NM,
no longer NM,
still NPS unit
no longer NM,
not in NPS
act of Congress CON 25 4 7 2 38
proclamation by President Theodore Roosevelt PP-TR 9 0 8 2 19
proclamation by President William Taft PP-WT 6 0 3 1 10
proclamation by President Woodrow Wilson PP-WW 8 0 3 3 14
proclamation by President Warren Harding PP-WH 4 0 3 1 8
proclamation by President Calvin Coolidge PP-CC 8 0 3 2 13
proclamation by President Herbert Hoover PP-HH 3 0 6 1 10
proclamation by President Franklin Roosevelt PP-FR 3 0 7 1 11
proclamation by President Harry Truman PP-HT 1 0 0 0 1
proclamation by President Dwight Eisenhower PP-DE 0 0 2 0 2
proclamation by President John Kennedy PP-JK 2 0 0 0 2
proclamation by President Lyndon Johnson PP-LJ 0 0 1 0 1
proclamation by President Jimmy Carter PP-JC 2 2 9 2 15
proclamation by President William Clinton PP-WC 216 1 0 19
proclamation by President George W. Bush PP-GB 2 3 0 0 5
proclamation by President Barack Obama PP-BO 1112 1 0 24
total by Presidential proclaimation 61334713154
grand total 86375415192

Fort Moultrie (indicated by *) is a subunit of Fort Sumter National Monument.

Another 69 national monuments were reincorporated into other parks or otherwise lost that status, and 7 of the still-existing monuments listed above have had name changes. These include national monuments:

converted to new National Parks of same name
  • Arches
  • Badlands
  • Biscayne
  • Black Canyon Of Gunnison
  • Bryce Canyon
  • Capitol Reef
  • Carlsbad Cave
  • Channel Islands
  • Congaree
  • Death Valley
  • Gates of the Arctic
  • Glacier Bay
  • Grand Canyon
  • Great Sand Dunes
  • Joshua Tree
  • Katmai
  • Kenai Fjords
  • Kobuk Valley
  • Lake Clark
  • Petrified Forest
  • Pinnacles
  • Saguaro
  • Wrangell-Saint Elias
  • Zion
incorporated into new National Parks with new name
  • Cinder Cone NM and Lassen Peak NM became Lassen Volcanic NP
  • Fort Jefferson NM became part of Dry Tortugas NP
  • Lehman Caves NM became part of Great Basin NP
  • Mount Olympus NM became Olympic NP
  • Sieur de Monts NM became Lafayette NP, later renamed Acadia NP
incorporated into existing National Parks
  • Grand Canyon NM (second NM of that name) and Marble Canyon NM incorporated into Grand Canyon NP
  • Jackson Hole NM incorporated into Grant Teton NP
  • Mukuntuweap NM and Zion NM (second NM of that name) incorporated into Zion NP
converted to National Historic Parks of same name
  • Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
  • Colonial
  • First State
  • Harpers Ferry
  • Pecos
  • Sitka
converted to National Historic Sites of same name
  • Fort Laramie
  • Minidoka Internment
  • Whitman Mission
converted to National Historic Parks or Sites with new names
  • Chaco Canyon NM became Chaco Culture NHP
  • Edison Laboratory NM became Thomas Edison NHS
  • Mound City Group NM became Hopewell Culture NHP
  • Kino Missions NM became Tumacacori NHP
converted to other parks
  • Big Hole Battlefield NM became Big Hole National Battlefield
  • Bering Land Bridge NM, Noatak NM, and Yukon-Charley Rivers NM each became National Preserves with the same names
  • Denali NM became Denali National Preserve and part of existing Denali NP
  • Meriwether Lewis NM became part of Natchez Trace Parkway
transferred out of NPS (with National Monument status ending)
  • Becharof NM transferred to FWS
  • Castle Pinckney NM transferred to South Carolina
  • Father Millet Cross NM transferred to New York state
  • Fossil Cycad NM transferred to BLM
  • Holy Cross NM transferred to USFS
  • Lewis and Clark Cavern NM transferred to Montana
  • Old Kasaan NM transferred to USFS
  • Papago Saguaro NM transferred to Arizona
  • Patrick Henry NM deauthorized
  • Santa Rosa Island NM abolished
  • Shoshone Cavern NM transferred to City of Cody, Wyoming
  • Verendrye NM transferred to North Dakota
  • Wheeler NM transferred to USFS
  • Yukon Flats NM transferred to FWS
  • Zuni-Cibola NM reverted to Zuni tribe
name changes
  • Aztec Ruin NM became Aztec Ruins NM
  • Capulin Mountain NM became Capulin Volcano NM
  • Casa Grande NM became Casa Grande Ruins NM
  • Fort Marion NM became Castillo de San Marcos NM
  • Gran Quivira NM became Salinas Pueblo Missions NM
  • Northwestern Hawaiian Islands MNM became Papahanaumokuakea MNM
  • Sunset Crater NM became Sunset Crater Volcano NM

© 2000-2015, 2016 by Wm. Robert Johnston.
Last modified 18 September 2016.
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