1689 Peter the Great comes to power 1762 Catherine II comes to power 1796 Paul I comes to power 1801 Alexander I comes to power 1825 Nicholas I comes to power 1853 Crimean War begins 1855 Alexander II comes to power 1856 Crimean War ends 1861 Emancipation, dumas, Zenstvos 1867 Alaska sold to United States 1874 To the people 1881 Alexander II assassinated, succeeded by Alexander III; creation of Okhrans 1894 Nicholas II comes to power 1903 Social Democrats split; depression 1904 Jan Russo-Japanese War begins 1905 Jan 9, Bloody Sunday Jun Potemkin mutiny Oct October Manifesto Dec revolution squashed 1914 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun assassination in Sarajevo Jul Russia enters Great War Aug Tannenberg Sep Oct Nov Dec 1915 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Nicholas II goes to front 1916 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Rasputin murdered 1917 Jan Feb Mar 8-12, revolution; Tsar Nicholas II abdicates Apr Lenin arrives in Petrograd; Lvov in power May Jun Bolsheviks gain support Jul Kerenskiis offensive Aug Bolsheviks control Soviet Sep Kornilov fails coup Oct Bolsheviks take power in Petrograd Nov 7, revolution; constituent assemby elections Dec creation of Cheka; Lenin in power 1918 Jan Constituent Assembly formed and dissolved Feb Mar Brest-Litovsk treaty with Germany Apr May civil war begins Jun first Soviet concentration camps Jul Allied troops land; failed attempt to remove Lenin; Nicholas II, Romanovs killed Aug assasination attempt on Lenin; Red Terror begins Sep Red Army wins Battle of Kazan Oct Nov Dec 1919 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Treaty of Versailles Jul Aug Sep Oct Zhenotdel formed Nov Dec 1920 Jan Feb Mar Apr Poland attacks Ukraine May Jun Soviets retake Kiev Jul Aug Sep Oct armistice with Poland Nov Wrangel, Whites defeated in Crimea, ending civil war Dec 1921 Jan Feb Kronstadt revolt Mar Kronstadt crushed; New Economic Policy adopted Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1922 Jan Feb Cheka becomes GPU Mar Apr Stalin becomes general secretary May Lenin's first stroke Jun first show trial, of Socialist Revolutionaries Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Lenin's second stroke; USSR founded 1923 Jan Feb Mar Lenin's third stroke Apr May Jun Jul USSR constitution adopted Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1924 Jan Lenin dies; leadership by triumvirate of Zinoviev, Kamenev, Stalin Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1925 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1926 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Zinoviev expelled from Politburo Aug Sep Oct new family law code; Trotsky and Kamenev expelled from Politburo Nov Dec 1927 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1928 Jan Stalin starts "Urals-Siberian" method Feb Mar Apr May Shakhty trial begins Jun Jul Shakhty trial ends Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1929 Jan Feb Mar Apr 16th Party Congress, first Five Year Plan approved May Kulaks defined Jun Jul Aug Sep border conflict begins with China Oct Stalin decides to collectivize Nov Bukharin expelled from Politburo; Stalin annouces collectivization breakthrough Dec Stalin's 50th birthday; Stalin announces end of NEP and liquidation of kulaks 1930 Jan Feb deportation of Kulaks; approximate peak of livestock slaughter by peasants Mar Dizzy with Success Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov trial of Industrial Party begins Dec trial of Industrial Party ends 1931 Jan Feb Mar trial of Menshevik wreckers Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Stalin's article "Some Questions Concerning History of Bolshevism" Nov Dec 1932 Jan Feb Mar Apr May antireligious five-year plan begins Jun Jul Aug five stalkslaw Sep Oct Nov Stalin's wife commits suicide Dec internal passports introduced 1933 Jan Feb Mar Apr last major wreckers trial May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov diplomatic relations restored with USA Dec 1934 Jan 17th Party Congress Feb second Five Year Plan approved Mar Apr May Jun law on betrayal of fatherland adopted Jul NKVD replaces OGPU; Yagoda becomes head Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Kirov assasination 1935 Jan Feb new collective farm charter, allowing larger private plots Mar Apr May Stalin creates purge committee Jun Jul Aug Stakhanov's coal success, beginning Stakhanovism Sep Oct Nov Dec 1936 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun abortion outlawed Jul Aug first Moscow trial, of Zinoviev, Kamenev, others Sep Oct Nov Dec new USSR (Stalin) constitution 1937 Jan second Moscow trial, of Pyotakov, Radek, others Feb Mar Apr May execution of several Red Army generals Jun Jul Aug Sep Yagoda removed Oct Nov Dec 1938 Jan Feb Mar third Moscow trial, of Bukharin, Rykov, Yagoda, others Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Beria replaces Ezhov as NKVD head 1939 Jan Feb Mar World War II begins--Germany invades Czechoslovakia Apr May Molotov replaces Litvinov, foreign affairs Jun Jul Aug Hitler-Stalin nonaggression pact signed between USSR and Germany Sep Germany and USSR invade Poland Oct Nov USSR annexes western Ukraine and western Byelorusia; USSR invades Finland Dec USSR expelled from League of Nations 1940 Jan Feb Soviet-German trade agreement Mar end of Soviet-Finnish war Apr Katyn massacre May Jun Jul Aug annexation of Baltic States; Trotsky assassinated in Mexico; Litvinov removed from Central Committee Sep Oct Nov Dec 1941 Jan Feb Mar Apr Germany attacks Yugoslavia May Jun German invasion of USSR; fall of Minsk; formation of GKO Jul Aug fall of Smolensk Sep Kiev falls to Germans; German offensive approaches Moscow; Leningrad encircled Oct closest German advance toward Moscow Nov Lend-lease to USSR begins Dec USA enters World War II 1942 Jan Soviet counteroffensive Feb Mar Apr May German offensive in south; Soviets defeated at Kerch and Kharkov; Soviet atomic bomb project began Jun German forces break through toward Volga and Caucasus; Stalin orders no retreats Jul Battle of Stalingrad begins Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Soviet winter offensive in south 1943 Jan siege of Leningrad partially lifted Feb Battle of Stalingrad won by USSR Mar Apr May Comintern dissolved Jun Jul allies land in Italy; Battle of Kursk begins Aug Soviets win Battle of Kursk Sep Oct Nov Teheran conference with Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill; Karachais deported Dec Kalmyks deported 1944 Jan siege of Leningrad ends Feb Chechens and Ingush deported Mar Balkars deported Apr Soviets enter Rumania May liberation of Crimea; Crimean Tatars deported Jun D-Day, allied landing in France Jul Minsk liberated; Soviet troops enter Poland Aug Soviet troops reach Bucharest Sep Soviet troops reach Sofia Oct Churchill and Stalin formulate division of eastern Europe Nov Dec 1945 Jan Soviets take Warsaw Feb Yalta conference Mar Soviets enter Austria Apr US/Soviet forces meet; death of Hitler; Truman-Molotov meeting May Soviets troops take Berlin; Nazis surrenders; end of lend-lease to USSR Jun Jul Potsdam conference begins Aug atomic bombs dropped on Japan; Soviet invasion of Manchuria Sep Japan surrenders Oct United Nations founded Nov Dec 1946 Jan Feb Stalin predicts east-west war Mar Churchill's Iron Curtain speech Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep private farm plots denounced Oct Nov Dec first Soviet nuclear reactor goes critical 1947 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Marshall Plan formed Jul Aug Sep Cominform founded Oct Nov Dec end of ration cards, reform currency 1948 Jan Feb Communist coup in Czechoslovakia Mar Apr May Jun Yugoslavia expelled from Cominform; Berlin blockade begins Jul Aug Lysenko prevails in Academy of Agricultural Science session Sep Oct Nov Dec 1949 Jan Comecon founded; Academy of Sciences declares primacy of Soviet science Feb Mar Apr Nato founded May Berlin blockade ends Jun Jul Aug first Soviet nuclear test, using copied US Fat Man design Sep Oct PR China formed Nov Dec 1950 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Korean War begins Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1951 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep second Soviet nuclear test, first using indigenous design Oct third Soviet nuclear test Nov first operational nuclear weapon Dec 1952 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 19th Party Congress; first British nuclear test; first US H-bomb test Nov Dec 1953 Jan Doctor's Plot unveiled Feb Mar Stalin dies Apr May Jun Jul Beria arrested, executed; armistice signed in Korea Aug first boosted fission test Sep Khruschev elected first secretary Oct Nov Dec 1954 Jan Feb Mar Virgin Lands campaign Apr prison uprising at Kengir May Jun first nuclear power station operational Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1955 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Warsaw Pact signed Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov first thermonuclear bomb test Dec 1956 Jan Feb 20th Party Congress: 6th 5 year plan, Khruschev's secret speech on Stalin's crimes Mar Apr May Jun uprising in Poland Jul Aug Sep Oct revolution in Hungary, crushed by Soviet troops Nov Dec 1957 Jan Feb Mar Apr May attempt to remove Khruschev Jun central committee reverses Khruschev removal Jul Khruschev's opponents removed Aug Sep Oct Sputnik 1 launched; Zhukov retired Nov Dec 1958 Jan Feb antireligious campaign Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Pasternak receives Nobel, is persecuted Nov Dec 1959 Jan Feb first SLBM operational Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec first ICBM operational 1960 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct first SSBN operational Nov Dec 1961 Jan Feb Mar Apr Gagarin orbits Earth May Jun Jul Khruschev, Kennedy meet on German issue in Vienna Aug Berlin Wall built Sep Oct 58 mt H-bomb test; 22nd Party Congress, Stalin's body removed from Mausoleum Nov Dec 1962 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Novosherkagsk workers shot by troops Jul Aug Sep Oct Cuban missile crisis Nov publication in USSR of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denesovich; end Cuban missile crisis Dec end atmospheric nuclear testing 1963 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug limited nuclear test ban treaty signed Sep Oct Nov Dec 1964 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct removal of Khruschev, replaced by Brezhnev Nov Dec 1965 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Sinjavsky and Daniel arrested Oct Nov Dec 1966 Jan Feb Mar 23rd Party Congress Apr 23rd Party Congress May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1967 Jan Feb Mar Apr Soyuz 1 crashes, killing Komarov May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1968 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun publication of Sakharov's Progress, Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom Jul Aug Soviet troops end Prague Spring Sep Oct Nov Dec 1969 Jan Feb Mar border skirmishes with China Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1970 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Solzhenitsyn awarded Nobel Nov Dec 1971 Jan Feb Mar Apr Salyut 1 manned, first space station May Jun Soyuz 11 accident kills Dobrovolskiy, Volkov, and Patsayev Jul Aug Sep Khruschev dies Oct Nov Dec 1972 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Nixon visits Moscow, SALT I signed Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1974 Jan Feb Solzhenitsyn arrested and expelled Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec first MIRVed missile operational 1975 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Apollo-Soyuz mission Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sakharov awarded Nobel Peace Prize 1976 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1977 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct new Soviet constitution Nov Dec 1978 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1979 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec invasion of Afghanistan 1980 Jan Sakharov exiled to Gorky Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Polish strikes, formation of Solidarity Sep Oct Nov Dec 1981 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec martial law declared by General Jaruselski in Poland 1982 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov death of Brezhnev, replaced by Andropov Dec 1983 Jan Feb Mar Reagan announces SDI Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep KAL 007 shot down Oct Nov first Typhoon SSBN operational Dec 1984 Jan Feb death of Andropov, Chernenko appointed Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1985 Jan Feb Mar death of Chernenko, replaced by Gorbachev Apr May beginning of anti-alcohol campaign Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Geneva summit Dec 1986 Jan Feb Mar Yelstin placed on Politburo Apr Chernobyl nuclear accident May Chernobyl fires extinguished Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Rekjavik summit Nov Dec 1987 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Rust flight to Red Square Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec INF treaty signed; Chernobyl station officers tried; Mir space station first manned 1988 Jan Feb Yelstin removed from Politburo; Andreeva attacks Gorbachev's reforms Mar Apr May Jun history exams disrupted Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 Jan Feb Soviet troops leave Afghanistan Mar semi-free elections take place Apr May Jun Jul Aug Poland forms coalition government Sep last nuclear warheads removed from Hungary Oct Honecker outed in East Germany Nov Berlin Wall comes down Dec Romanian revolution 1990 Jan Feb last nuclear warheads removed from Poland Mar Lithuania declares independence; elections to republic levels; Yelstin, Sakarov elected to parliament Apr May Latvia declares independence; Bush-Gorbachev summit; Yelstin elected leader of Russia Jun Yelstin resigns party Jul Aug Sep Oct last admitted nuclear test; reunification of Germany Nov CFE treaty signed Dec Shevardnadze resigns 1991 Jan Soviet troops kill 15 Lithuanian protestors; Gulf War begins Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul START signed Aug attempted coup fails; last nuclear warheads removed from Germany Sep Baltic states' independence recognized by US Oct Nov Dec USSR dissolved; Gorbachev resigns 1992 Jan most state economic subsidies end; Shevardnadze becomes leader of Georgia Feb reports of sale of Soviet nuclear warheads to Iran Mar fighting in Dnestr region, Moldova Apr May communist leader of Azerbaijan ousted Jun Yelstin, Bush agree on START II; coup in Georgia crushed Jul Aug coup in Tajikistan Sep Oct Nov Dec Yelstin wins showdown with Congree of People's Deputies 1993 Jan communist regime installed in Tajikistan Feb Mar Apr first meeting between Yelstin and Clinton May Jun leader of Azerbaijan ousted Jul Aug Russian troops leave Lithuania Sep Yelstin dissolves parliament Oct troops retake Parliament building from Yelstin opponents, killing 140 Nov Dec new constitution approved 1994 Jan Feb Kazakhstan agrees to denuclearize; Georgia and Russia agree on cooperation Mar Apr May agreement to end fighting in Georgia; ceasefire in Armenia Jun Jul Aug Russian troops leave Latvia and Estonia Sep Oct Nov Dec troops sent to Chechnya 1995 Jan Feb troops take Grozny, Chechnya Mar Apr May Jun first US space shuttle docking with Mir space station; hostage taking at hospital in Budennovsk, 143 killed, 435 injured Jul Aug assasination attempt injures Shevardnadze Sep Oct Nov Dec parliamentary elections, gains by communist party 1996 Jan hostage taking in Kizlyar, Dagestan, 23 killed Feb Mar Apr pact signed linking Russia and Belarus May last nuclear warheads removed from Kazakhstan Jun Yelstin reelected president; last nuclear warheads removed from Ukraine; Chechen terrorists seize hostages in Budennovsk, 143 killed Jul Aug rebels retake Grozny, Chechnya; Lebed signs peace accord with Chechen rebels Sep Oct Yelstin fires Lebed Nov last nuclear warheads removed from Belarus Dec 1997 Jan last Russian troops leave Chechnya Feb Mar Yelstin, Clinton discuss START III in Helsinki Apr joint Russian-PRC statement on strategic cooperation May Russia agrees to NATO expansion; Russia and Ukraine resolve Black Sea fleet dispute Jun Russia participates in Group of Seven meetings; Mir space station damaged by collision Jul Aug suspected nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya Sep Oct Nov Dec 1998 Jan Feb Mar Chernomyrdin fired as Prime Minister Apr May Jun Jul Aug 17, Russian economic collapse; Yelstin names new prime minister Sep Oct Nov Dec 1999 Jan Feb Mar economic free-fall stops; market bombing in Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia, 64 killed Apr NATO military actions in Kosovo draw Russian criticism May Jun Jul Aug Sep four apartment bombings in Moscow, Volgodonsk, 291 killed; troops sent to Chechnya Oct Nov Dec 2000 Jan Yelstin resigns, Putin becomes president Feb Mar Putin elected president Apr May Jun new Foreign Policy Concept approved Jul suicide bombing at Russian base in Argun, Chechnya, 25 killed Aug flat tax approved; submarine Kursk sinks Sep Oct Nov ambush on Russia troops in Chechnya, 36 killed Dec Soviet anthem reintroduced; bombing of mosque in Alkham-Yurt, Chechnya, 21 killed 2001 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep 9/11 attacks in US Oct Nov Dec 2002 Jan last independent TV station briefly closed Feb Mar Apr May Russia-US strategic arms agreement, NATO-Russia council; bombing at parade in Kaspiysk, 43 killed Jun Jul Aug Russian military helicopter shot down in Chechnya, 127 killed Sep Oct Chechen terrorists seize theater in Moscow, 170 killed, 656 injured; police station in Grozny bombed, 24 killed Nov Dec two car bombings in Chechnya, 71 killed, 640 injured 2003 Jan Feb Mar Chechen referendum rejects separatist movement Apr May bombing attacks on Chechen government, 59 killed, 200 injured Jun last independent TV channel closed Jul Aug suicide bombing of hospital in Mozdok, North Ossetia, 50 killed Sep Oct border dispute with Ukraine Nov Dec bombing on train in Stavropol, 47 killed 2004 Jan Feb Putin dismisses prime minister, cabinet; Moscow subway bombing kills 41 Mar Putin reelected president, Fradkov becomes prime minister Apr May Chechen leader Kadyrov assassinated; bombing at Grozny stadium kills 24 Jun raid in Nazran, Ingushetia, 61 killed Jul Aug two planes destroyed by terrorist bombs, 89 killed Sep Chechen terrorists seize school in Beslan, 372 killed, 747 injured Oct Nov Dec 2005 Jan Feb Russia agreed to supply nuclear fuel to Iran Mar Maskhadov killed in counterterror operation Apr May Khodorkovsky sentenced Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct armed attack on Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkaria, 85 killed Nov Dec 2006 Jan Putin authorized monitoring of non-governmental organizations Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Basayev killed by Russian security Aug bombing at Moscow market killed 13 Sep Oct Nov Litvinenko assasinated in London; Orange Revolution starts in Ukraine Dec 2007 Jan Russia cuts oil pipeline shipments to Europe; Orange Revolution over Feb Mar anti-Putin protests in St. Petersburg Apr Yelstin died; cyber attacks on Estonia May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec United Russia party won parliament elections 2008 Jan Russia completes delivery of nuclear fuel to Iranian reactor Feb Mar Medvedev elected president Apr May Medvedev became president with Putin as prime minister Jun Jul UK blamed Russian government for Litvinenko assasination; start of decline in Russian oil price on market Aug Russia invades Georgia, declares Abkhazia and South Ossetia independent Sep Oct Nov Medvedev announced plans for SRBMs in Kalingrad Dec 2009 Jan Russia oil price at market hits low of 25% of July 2008 price Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul U.S.-Russia summit Aug car bombing at police headquarters in Ingushetia, 25 killed Sep Medvedev announced cancellation of plans for SRBMs in Kalingrad Oct Nov train bombed in Bologoye, killing 28 Dec 2010 Jan Feb Mar two suicide bombings on Moscow subways killed 40 Apr Polish president and officials killed in plane crash near Katyn May Jun severe heat wave in Russia Jul Medvedev signs law expanding FSB powers against individuals Aug Sep bombing outside U.S. embassy in Georgia by Russian intelligence operative; car bombing in market in North Ossetia killed 17 Oct armed attack on parliament building in Chechnya killed 6 Nov Dec ethnic riots in Moscow 2011 Jan New START treaty approved by Russia Duma; suicide bombing at Moscow airport killed 37; France agreed to sell Mistral ships to Russia Feb Mar Medvedev announced "10 theses" regarding private investment in Russia Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Medvedev nominates Putin for president Oct Nov Dec 2012 Jan Feb Mar Putin reelected president Apr May Putin takes office as president Jun Jul Aug Russia admitted to World Trade Organization Sep Oct Nov Dec Russia bans child adoptions by U.S. citizens 2013 Jan Feb bolide/meteor explosion over Chelyabinsk, 1200 injured Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Snowden granted temporary asylum in Russia Sep Oct Nov Dec Khodorkovsky pardoned; two bombings in Volgograd kill 35 2014 Jan Feb Winter Olympics held in Sochi, Russia; Ukrainian president impeached; Russians seize facilities in Crimea Mar Russia openly occupies, annexes Crimea, authorizes military action in Ukraine Apr May Jun Jul Malaysia Airlines flight shot down over Ukraine by Russian missile; 298 killed Aug Sep Oct
© 1988-2013, 2014 by Wm. Robert Johnston.
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